The conclusion, contrary to what many think, is no place to simply repeat what has already been said. It needs to be a closure that adds something to the text. It may be a resumption of the discussion, but in an innovative way, which is not limited to repetition. It can also be used to give warnings, a critical analysis of the topic discussed or even make suggestions if the issue is a social problem, for example.
What should not be in the conclusion
One thing must always be remembered: conclusion is no place for new arguments. Be very careful with that! The arguments must be in the development.
Another very common mistake is to use the conclusion to make caveats. A caveat that was not addressed during the text may not appear in the conclusion, as it would be a new argument. If you want to make some caveats in a reasoning, make the caveat in the development itself, using the correct arguments. A conclusion can not bring surprises to the reader. The conclusion is only to make a closing on everything, a lesson that can be drawn on the subject that you have already defended. And it is precisely in this respect that it brings something new into the text. Let’s show an example to get clearer:
Example of a good conclusion
Note the wording below. Note that the conclusion, in this case, gave a hint as to what should be done. Read the text calmly, the theme of this essay was: “Friendship experienced in different ways by man”. The last paragraph (completion) is greyed out.
What does a friendship mean today?
“Man has been modifying his conception of friendship over time, which allows him to experience it in different ways. This can be perceived by comparing past, smaller, deeper and more lasting friendships with those of today, profuse, superficial and meteoric.
One does not have to go back in time to see how relationships were treated from a point of view far removed from today’s. Friends were blind people to whom all secrets could be told without fear of trust. The relationship of friendship was established only with those with whom one had a long relationship, reason why it was almost a bond of kinship and therefore, it usually lasted for a long time, if not for the whole life. Thus, until one was actually considered a friend, there was a period throughout which trust and admiration were conquered mutually.
Cases of true friendships are currently reduced. Over time, relations, in general, began to undergo changes, because of the very circumstances to which society has been subjected. This reality brought new features even to one of man’s noblest sentiments. It seems that people have lost much of their ability to discern the true value of a friendship.
So much so that anyone who meets in the middle of a weekend party is called a friend the next day. Social networks like Facebook, which symbolize unity, actually confer negligence on what we call a friend. Among dozens of contacts, how many are fully trusted? Unfortunately, in some cases, technological innovations cooperate with the loss of meaning of valuable words.
Progress and innovation are constantly in the thinking of the modern citizen. More important than this, however, would it be for man to reassess all his values in order to restore to friendship the place which he must occupy in human relations. “
Notice how this conclusion made a closure to the text, but not just repeating something that has already been said. A new idea was put forward, expressing a thought that was already defended in the text: the idea that friendship is too important to be trivialized. This is an example of a great conclusion.
To be even more clear, we will show another example of how to make a conclusion, this time in the text on aggressiveness we have already shown. When we quoted that text, we were concerned about development, so we did not put the conclusion. Notice now how that text was completed:
- Present in the most diverse fields of action, aggression follows the steps of man since his existence, directly influencing his actions. This behavior, manifested in various ways, remains questionable, since its consequences do not please everyone.
- Primitive mankind was able to develop as its mastery over combat instruments increased. The survival of the strongest, even today, is a reality that defines the destiny of life, the fruit of the competitiveness that – indeed – has always existed. The aggressive attitudes, which guaranteed the permanence of the human species, are currently used by people who want to overcome their opponents at any cost. Niccolo Machiavelli, with his theory, influenced kingdoms and countries to achieve progress. Obviously, there is controversy about this ideology, which is said by many to be unethical, which – even – is taught in courses such as business administration, for example.
- It is understood by aggressiveness any action that intends to damage something or someone. It is understandable, therefore, that it be attributed negative characteristics (immoral solution, deplorable resource). This behavior must be avoided in order to achieve a peaceful and courteous personality (ideal for a relationship). In politics, for example, verbal violence, sometimes physical violence, is constant, a fact that causes the population to have an aversion to these attitudes, considered as a lack of emotional control of those who practice them. According to scholars, what causes this procedure of “attack” is the nonconformity with the situation. Intriguing, though, is the fact that such hostile behavior has the power to make someone succeed. After all, is it bad to what extent?
- In the competitive arena, aggressiveness is synonymous with determination, which helps people achieve their goals. The constant manifestations with which the man coexists contribute to the reproduction of this behavior when taking as an example the retrospect of the successful ones. In order to work in a company it is necessary to have an attitude, which explains the fact that businessmen hire offensive individuals for business and commerce in general. In a game of chess, the most aggressive player usually wins, forcing the opponent to stay on the defensive, restricting – increasingly – the opponent’s moves and positioning himself to give the expected checkmate. This proves that ambition and courage to attack are important, and perhaps even essential, to achieving goals and overcoming challenges.
- Despite criticisms and definitions attributed to aggression, it can not be discarded from human experience, as it is part of the character of man. It is then up to the population to know how to use this behavior in an appropriate way, adjusting the factors to ethically build their future.
- Note once again that the conclusion did not add any new argument to the text, it only highlighted the strong points that have already been mentioned. All the sentences of this conclusion have already been defended, and the last sentence has brought a lesson that can be drawn from this subject as a whole.
How to complete a text
We can summarize everything that has been taught in this chapter highlighting the importance of development (and its argument) in the formation of the conclusion. It is from him that the reasoning that will form the conclusion starts.
When you’re done with your text, answer at least one of these questions about your essay:
“What lesson can be drawn from this?”
- How to summarize the solution to this problem?
- What deserves to be highlighted in this reasoning?
Make your conclusion by answering these questions in relation to your text and you will have a good conclusion.
It is very important that you see our complete writing insert for more examples of conclusions, exercises and comments on essays that have taken maximum notice.